Chances are you have heard that probiotics are good for you. Whatareprobiotics? WebMed.com tells us that: “Probiotics是对你的健康有益的活细菌和酵母，尤其是对你的消化系统。我们通常认为细菌是导致疾病的东西。但你的身体充满了细菌，有好有坏。益生菌通常被称为“有益”或“有益”细菌，因为它们有助于保持肠道健康。”
You need those good bacteria in your belly, and eating certain foods — fermented foods — can help your gut maintain balance. In fact, probiotics have been shown to help with serious gut ailments, like IBS and leaky gut syndrome. But, there are also many everydaybenefits of probiotic rich foodsthat can help us all. Probiotic side effects include a range of things from supporting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, preventing inflammation, boosting immunity,reducing stress, improving your moodand alleviating conditions ranging from allergies to diarrhea.
Dr. B.J. Hardick, founder of the Centre for Maximized Living in London, Ontario notes: “Conventionally, when people hear about probiotics, they typically think of yogurt or supplements. Most people are unfortunately unaware of several other incredible — and typically better — sources of healthy gut bacteria.” Among those sources is a wide array of cultured and fermented foods.
First Rule of Probiotic Foods: Go Raw
As Kristina J. Campbell, MSc wrote inA Tale of Two Pickles: The health benefits of fermented foods:
A pickled product that does not list vinegar on the label is a good probiotic candidate, provided it has not been heat-processed during production. Since cooking kills off the good bacteria, be sure to consume probiotic foods raw.
Bottom line: Fermented foods — if not made with vinegar or heat-proceed (aka. cooked) — will be rich in probiotics. That means you need to eat your probiotic foodsraw.
How can you tell what is raw and what isn’t?The Healthy Economisthas an excellent post,The Crucial Difference Between Pickled and Fermented他们清楚地说明要寻找什么。In short, as Alex Lewin, author ofReal Food Fermentationexplains not all fermented foods are pickled and not all pickles are fermented.
Foods that are pickled are those that have been preserved in an acidic medium. In the case of various types of supermarket pickles on the shelf, the pickling comes from vinegar. These vegetables, however, are notfermented (even though vinegar itself is the product of fermentation) and hence do not offer the probiotic and enzymatic value of homemade fermented vegetables.
Home fermentation of vegetables preserves without the use of any pressure or heat unlike supermarket versions of the same foods. It allows the ubiquitous and beneficiallactobacillipresent on the surface of all living things to proliferate creating lactic acid which not only pickles and preserves the vegetables, but also promotes the health of those that consume it in the following ways:
- Enhances the vitamin content of the food.
- Improves nutrient bio-availability in the body.
- Improves the digestibility of the food and even cooked foods that are consumed along with it!
So don’t be fooled by unhealthy supermarket pickled versions of homemade fermented foods. These modern foods are the product of high heat and pressure which destroys nutrients and do not in any way enhance health. The one exception to this rule are the various fermented foods in the refrigerator section of many healthfood stores. These products are actually fermented and pickled. The only drawback is that these gourmet items are rather expensive compared to the pennies per ounce it costs to make them yourself.
My colleague here at EatDrinkBetter.com, Becky Striepe wrote a fabulous post5 Best Fermented Foods for Your Health (and why you should eat them!)这差不多涵盖了所有内容。贝基指出，过去发酵的全部作用都是保存食物，但现在证明，这个过程也产生了一些巨大的健康效益。发酵基本上意味着让有益细菌消化食物中的一些碳水化合物和糖。
A few other things to consider. According to Harvard Medical School, “health benefits [of probiotics] are strain-specific, and not all strains are necessarily useful, so you may want to consult a practitioner familiar with probiotics to discuss your options.”
So, how can you eat more fermented foods? Here are 10 probiotic-rich foods — other than yogurt — to try:
酸菜是一种发酵的卷心菜，顾名思义，它有一种令人愉悦的酸味。大多数商店里买的酸菜都不是生的，所以一定要仔细阅读标签。在市场冷藏区发现的品牌很可能是生的，所以检查你的市场冷藏区当地和手工品牌的泡菜。You can alsoferment your own sauerkraut at home.
Of course, sauerkraut is the perfect accompaniment for pastrami, on a hot dog, or alongside beer-braised brats. But, it also is great on sandwiches (other than the obvious reuben). It’s like shredded cabbage but with a sour kick. Martyna Angell, author ofThe Wholesome Cookhas a great blog post namingsix things to make with sauerkraut other than a reubenthat includes several raw sauerkraut recipes for sauerkraut kiwi smoothies, sauerkraut slaw and nori rolls.
Another fermented cabbage condiment, kimchi is both spicy and slightly sour.Bon Appétit Magazinehas saved us all a lot of trouble by finding their8 Favorite Kimchi Brands from Across America. Note: Not all are raw, so read the label carefully. Most Korean restaurants serve kimchi.
Stir a spoonful of kimchi into your soups, salads, or even pasta dishes just before serving. Or just take a fork, grab the jar, and go for it. In fact, you can swap out pickles for kimchi in most recipes.Bon Appétit Magazinesuggests serving it alongside thisultimate Korean barbecue menuor with one of these12 dishes that just taste better with kimchi.
We all know what a pickle is, but, like sauerkraut, not all pickles are created equal. Most store-bought pickles are not raw, so make sure you read those labels carefully. Raw pickles will be well labeled and brands found in the refrigerated section of the market are likely to be raw. Or, ferment your own. Anna at Green Talk hasa great video showing you how.
Of course, pickles are a great condiment for sandwiches, but there are so many other ways to enjoy them. The ever hip folks at Thrillist.com have come up with15 ways people are going insane over picklesthat include places to find pickle juice cocktails and pickle and peanut butter sandwiches.
Miso is fermented soybeans. it is very salty and a little goes a long way. It is widely available in the refrigerator section of supermarkets and health food stores and Asian markets. It is available in several varieties, the most common of which are (in order of intensity):
- White or kome miso, made from soybeans and rice, which has a light, slightly sweet flavor
- Yellow or mugi miso, made from barley and soybeans
- Red or hatcho miso, made from soybeans alone
A good way to use miso is as a base for soups and stews instead of vegetable broth. But, as the folks atLivestrong.compoint out, it’s important to buy unpasteurized miso because pasteurization can destroy the live probiotic cultures in the paste. When using miso in soup, stew or another cooked dish, don’t add it until the end of the cooking process and remove the food from heat immediately since high heat can destroy the probiotic organisms.
That said, a simple and delicious way to consume miso is a simple homemade salad dressing of tahini, miso, lemon, and water (to thin it out). Also, this recipe fornutty Miso Sunflower Seed Sauceis fantastic on just about anything and makes a great dipping sauce for grilled tofu skewers and is also good tossed with pasta or roasted vegetables. For more good information, Andrea at our sister site Vibrant Wellness Journalwrote a great piece on the health benefits of miso.
你可能在超市里见过瓶装康普茶，这是一种发酵的、微微冒泡的甜红茶或绿茶饮料，随处可见。这要感谢GT的康普茶，这家位于洛杉矶的6亿美元的公司让康普茶成为主流。AnInc. Magazinearticle described Kombucha as:
But, note, not all Kombucha is probiotic rich because some brewers use pasteurization to help control the alcohol content in their products. So, check labels carefully.
So, as mentioned you can get Kombucha in health food stores and major supermarkets around the country. If you can’t find kombucha on the shelf for some reason, trybrewing your own kombucha tea. For the more adventurous,wholelifestylenutrition.comhas a collection of 50 kombucha recipes that includekombucha BBQ sauce,kombucha mustardand akombucha margarita.
A Note About Dairy
Dairy is an excellent environment for bacteria because the live microorganisms feed on lactose, a naturally occurring sugar in dairy products. Hence, yogurt’s reputation as a great probiotic food. But, as we said, there are many diary based probiotic food that rival yogurt in efficacy.
Cheeses are excellent carriers for probiotics — their low acidity and high fat preserve and nurture the bacteria while they move through the digestive system. Cheeses that are probiotic rich are either aged or made from raw, unpasteurized milk. If your wondering how cheese stacks up to other probiotic-rich dairy foods,cheddar cheese was evaluatedas a food carrier for the delivery of probiotic microorganisms and it was found that mature raw cheddar cheese compares very favorably with fresh yogurt.
But… always buy rawandunpasteurized cheeses if you want to receive any probiotic benefits. Raw cheese — made from raw, unpasteurized cow or goat’s milk — comes in almost any variety. Cheddar, feta and Gouda are common probiotic cheeses as are provolone, Edam, brick, caciocavallo, Emmental and Gruyere. When purchasing cheese, look for the words “raw”, “probiotic,” or “made from raw milk” on the label.
Kefir is another probiotic rich drink, thanks to its high levels of lactobacilli and bifidus bacteria. There are two different types of kefirs: water-based and milk-based. Water kefir is a fermented carbohydrate-containing, nondairy liquid. Milk kefir, on the other hand, is made from goat’s milk, cow’s milk, sheep’s milk and, even, camel’s milk.
水和牛奶酸奶都含有有益菌，但有不同的特性。牛奶基的开菲尔含有色氨酸，一种被亲切地称为“自然界的百忧解”的氨基酸，因为它能舒缓神经系统。Milk sugars are broken down during the fermentation process, so kefir naturally contains less lactose than milk, and goat and sheep milk kefirs have even less.
Kefir also contains active lactase enzymes, which is why even some people with lactose intolerance can digest it with ease. Milk-based Kefir is also a good source of protein as well as calcium and potassium. Kefir can be found in health foods stores and major supermarkets as a fermented milk drink (typically in the yogurt aisle), you can also find products with kefir used in ice cream, cheese, popsicles, oatmeal and even veggie-based drinks.
你可能不认为巧克力是一种乳制品，但它确实是。而且，如果你需要更多的理由来吃它，黑巧克力富含益生菌是一个很好的理由。通过使用较低的加工温度来保持它们的完整性，制造商能够在黑巧克力中添加益生菌，其数量是其他乳制品的四倍。由此产生的巧克力在数量和质量上都富含益生菌。2010年发表在《国际食品微生物学杂志》(International Journal of Food Microbiology)上的一项研究发现，与添加在液态牛奶中的益生菌相比，黑巧克力中的益生菌能更好地通过胃和小肠。
Chocolate probiotic bars are often kept in the refrigerated section of your grocery store (in some stores, they are kept in the refrigerated yogurt aisle). Brands that can be found in health food stores, Whole Foods Markets and even Sam’s Club include Attune andHealthy Delights.
I’m sold. Who needs another reason to eat chocolate?
Green peas are one of the newer probiotic discoveries to come to light. In December 2013, Japanese researchers found that green peas contain Leuconostoc mesenteroides, a strain of probiotic bacteria. What does that mean? The good bacteria inside green peas may raise the level of antibodies in your immune system. These types of antibodies are often found in the lining of your airway and digestive tracts, according to the study. Translation: green peas may be able to help fight off infections and colds thanks to their inherent probiotic bacteria.
和之前一样，不要煮青豆。Add them raw to your salad, eat as a snack, tryraw green pea and almond dipon crackers, with veggies chips, or on top of tacos or try this delicious raw food recipe forsprouted wild rice with pistachios and spring vegetables.
这种又咸又酸的食物因其超强的碱化能力而闻名，已经成为便当盒里的常见主食。Eat them in the traditional way, in small quantities as a side dish forriceor eaten onrice balls(often without removing the pit) for breakfast and lunch. Umeboshi may also be served as a complement of agreen teaor a drink withshochuand hot water. Asian candy shops sometimes carrykarikari ume, or prepackaged, crunchy pickled ume. For a modern twist, try them in a salad ofpickled napa cabbage with umeboshi plums. “Consume 2 to 3 per week for optimal results,” says Apona Healing Arts founder and macrobiotic expert Lidia Kuleshnyk.
As our friends over at Wellness Mama note, soda hasn’t always beenthe high fructose corn syrup and artificial flavor concoction in an aluminum canthat we know today.
For hundreds of years (and probably much longer) cultures around the world have made various forms of naturally fermented “sodas” from sweetened herbal teas or fruit juice mixes. These natural fermented drinks contained beneficial enzymes and probiotics to boost health and were a far cry from the unhealthy versions we have today.
Wellness Mama has a great blog post onmaking your own natural probiotic rich ginger ale(also called ginger beer). This natural recipe for ginger ale uses fresh ginger and a cultured ginger mixture called aginger bug来制造一种自然发酵，自然起泡的姜汁汽水。Drink alone, withgin and juiceor in aclassic dark and stormy. Not a bad way to get your probiotics on.
Image Credit: Probiotic-Rich Foods photos viaShutterstock.com